Appendices

Annex A - NMAB Requested Icebreaker Deployment / Coast Guard Planned Deployment 2017 - 2022

Winter Operations

The CCGS Louis S. St-Laurent will be utilized when a medium or heavy icebreaker is not available for winter icebreaking operations. The CCGS Amundsen will be used in the winter season for icebreaking, and will spend the summer season in the Arctic to support science projects. Icebreakers may be replaced from time to time with vessels of higher or lower capability, subject to the operational requirements and resource availability of the Coast Guard. All vessels will be multi-tasked to SAR or Aids to Navigation, as much as possible, to optimize the effectiveness of the fleet.

Arctic Operations

The following dates do not include the mobilization period for the Arctic but do include transit time. The CCGS Amundsen is dedicated to Arctic Science and is not used for icebreaking operations during the summer, except in emergency situations. The CCGS Louis S. St-Laurent is dedicated to support science projects or other Government departments during the first part of the Arctic season.

General Notes:

Asset Availability:

  • Assets will be adjusted based on conditions, while supporting industry
  • All vessel availability is dependent on Coast Guard priorities.
  • Dates of availability may contain operational gaps or overlaps.
  • Required maintenance and refit, as per the Vessel Maintenance Protocol, will determine availability and will vary from year to year.
  • Coast Guard must take into account other requests from Other Government Departments or users of vessel services.
  • Due to the age of the Fleet vessels, Coast Guard reserves the right to move vessels around as required.
  • Transit time to and from the Arctic is included.
  • Mobilization and de-mobilization is not included in the availability.
  • Total requirements for all clients will drive Coast Guard multi-tasking abilities.

Interaction with industry:

  • Coast Guard will share fleet plan for winter season when available
  • Daily teleconferencing will occur with industry during the season
  • Response times will be measured and reported to industry
  • The Arctic and Newfoundland & Labrador Regional Marine Advisory Boards did not specify exact dates for their industry requirements. The Coast Guard Icebreaking Program has determined the user requirement dates for both regional MABs based on previous discussions with industry members.

Other:

  • The Oceans Protection Plan includes the extension of the shoulder season in the Arctic to be implemented over the next 5 years based on the fleet availability but are not reflected below.

Winter season - South

The table displays the industry requirements and what the coast guard commits for the winter season - South.(Part 1 of 2)
The table displays the industry requirements and what the coast guard commits for the winter season - South.(Part 2 of 2)

* Jan: Central Gulf, Rover from the West Coast NL, Strait of Belle Isle to NE Coast NL,as required; Feb: Central Gulf, West Coast NL to Strait of Belle Isle; March: West Coast NL to Strait Isle of Belle Isle. Assistance in the Central Gulf as required; Apr: Central Gulf, West Coast NL to Strait of Belle Isle. Assistance in the Central Gulf and North Shore Qc as required; May: Central Gulf, West Coast NL, Strait of Belle Isle, North Shore Qc.

Summer Season - Arctic

The table displays the industry requirements and what the coast guard commits for the summer season - arctic

Map of Arctic Zones

Map of Arctic zones
 

Annex B: List of Canadian Coast Guard Icebreakers

The following table is a list of icebreakers and air cushion vehicles that may be utilized for icebreaking operations. These vessels are also used to support other Coast Guard and DFO programs and undergo regular maintenance periods, and are, therefore, not always available.

At this time, with the exception of the new polar icebreaker CCGS John G. Diefenbaker, no new building plans have been approved for the replacement of these icebreakers.

List of icebreakers and air cushion vehicules may be utilised for icebreaking operations
NameRegionTypeBuiltLength (m)Draft (m)Power (kw)
CCGS Louis S. St-Laurent A Heavy Icebreaker 1969 120 10 20,142
CCGS Terry Fox A Heavy Icebreaker 1983 88 9 17,300
CCGS Amundsen C&A Medium Icebreaker 1979 98 7 10,142
CCGS Des Groseilliers C&A Medium Icebreaker 1982 98 7 10,142
CCGS Henry Larsen A Medium Icebreaker 1987 100 7 12,174
CCGS Pierre Radisson C&A Medium Icebreaker 1978 98 7 10,142
CCGS Sir Wilfrid Laurier W HEMTV 1986 83 6 5,250
CCGS Edward Cornwallis A HEMTV 1986 83 6 5,250
CCGS George R. Pearkes A HEMTV 1986 83 6 5,250
CCGS Ann Harvey A HEMTV 1987 83 6 5,250
CCGS Martha L. Black C&A HEMTV 1986 83 6 5,250
CCGS Sir William Alexander A HEMTV 1986 83 6 5,250
CCGS Griffon C∧A HEMTV 1970 71 5 2,984
CCGS Samuel Risley C&A MEMTV 1985 70 6 6,595
CCGS Earl Grey A MEMTV 1986 70 5 6,500
CCGS Sipu Muin C&A ACV 1998 28 - 2,818
CCGS Mamilossa C&A ACV 2009 28 - 3,281

HEMTV - High Endurance Multi-Tasked Vessels
MEMTV - Medium Endurance Multi-Tasked Vessels
ACV - Air Cushioned Vehicles

Annex C: St. Lawrence/Gulf Marine Industry Comments and Recommendations on and Icebreaker Fleet Renewal Plan

The following information is a summary from the St. Lawrence/Gulf Marine Industry Comments and Recommendations on an Icebreaker Fleet Renewal Plan, received by the Commissioner of the Canadian Coast Guard in November 2016. The Fleet Renewal Plan project office is taking this information into consideration. Additionally, a Request for Information (RFI) was issued in November, 2016, seeking information, ideas and availability of resources from industry related to gaps anticipated in icebreaking services due to the aging fleet. Coast Guard is considering the information gathered from the RFI.

Comments from Industry regarding Fleet Renewal

The Canadian marine industry has reiterated the urgent need to equip the Coast Guard with new icebreakers due to the age and state of the current fleet. The National Shipbuilding Strategy and the Canadian Coast Guard Fleet Renewal Plan does not provide proper equipment for the Coast Guard to respond to the needs of the marine industry.

Issues:

  1. Climate: Coast Guard planning should take into consideration worst case scenario, historical ice information and climate change.
  2. Shipping traffic and Economics:
    1. Shipping traffic is stable in the St. Lawrence/Gulf and Great Lakes, reduced in New Brunswick and parts of Newfoundland, but size of vessels is increasing, The number of Coast Guard vessel escorts is highest in the St. Lawrence/Gulf and Saguenay area rather than Atlantic. Ferries are essential for remote areas depending on shipping to get supplies. Traffic is increasing in the Arctic, including tourism activities and is spread over a large area. One or two icebreaking units cannot service the Arctic.
    2. Economy: Both Ontario and Quebec importers/exporters choose to transit their annual $41 billion through the Port of Montreal for European trade. All industries have reduced inventory levels to remain competitive so are more dependent on the shipping industry for stable supplies. International trade performance and transport system fluidity go hand in hand.
  3. Equipement
    1. Vessels: Coast Guard’s two T1300 and four T1200s are needed to guarantee sustainability and reliability of the shipping lanes essential to maintain trade, ferries and supplies to remote communities. Other assets are also not reliable due to age and planned repairs/refits. The planned polar ice breaker has limited use in the St. Lawrence because of its size and no use on the Great Lakes. It will only be used in the Arctic, but not during the winter months. It does not alleviate the issue of the aging T1200 and T1300s.
    2. Other: Radarsat is effective and dependable for defining ice conditions. Helicopters are required for surveillance of restricted and large areas and were upgraded. AIS coverage must include all the Gulf and coastal areas.
  4. Operations:
    1. Unit Use: T1200 is most versatile and new vessels should be more powerful versions of this design. T1300 is not necessary for icebreaking services. T1100s have limited use for icebreaking but sometimes need the T1200 to assist. T1100 and T1050s are narrower so only efficient to assist ferries and fishing boats but not commercial escort. Building vessels for multitasking can weaken the effectiveness for the vessel to do anything well.
    2. roposed Icebreaker Distribution:
      • Great Lakes
        • No change in Great Lakes. Service remains as two Coast Guard vessels (one T1100 plus one T1050) in addition to regular US icebreakers.
      • St. Lawrence (River and Gulf)/Saguenay
        • Shift three vessels from Atlantic (4 ferry services and 10% of traffic) to St. Lawrence River and Gulf (7 ferry services, remote communities and 90% of traffic) and avoid need for C&A to request assistance from Atlantic. Recommending two T1300, three T1200 and two T1100.
      • Atlantic
        • Reduce Atlantic to five icebreakers to serve Northeast coast of Newfoundland, Sydney, Prince Edward Island and the west coast of Newfoundland when required. The icebreakers would include one T1200, three T1100 and one T1050. Suggest, during winter months only, combining Halifax and St. John’s ice offices into one location in Sydney.
          • Chaleur Bay - reduce commitment as historical data reflects requirements are less than commitments.
      • Arctic
        • Traffic is increasing, is spread over and includes commercial exporting and tourism activities in addition to resupply activities.
  5. Governance: “The government does not perceive the Coast Guard and icebreaking services as essential for maintaining shipping efficiency and, more broadly, transport network reliability.” Industry is supportive of the Canada Transportation Act Review panel recommendation to the effect that the Canadian Coast Guard should be under the portfolio of Transport Canada. Ice breakers should be used to break ice and not be multi-tasked. Replacement of the T1200s is necessary in the near future. Five scenarios are presented to replace the T1200s. All scenarios include the requirement for short- and medium-term chartering of icebreakers while awaiting procurement and repair/build of new units. A risk assessment of each scenario is included.
  6. Conclusion:
    It is recommended
    • That the icebreaker fleet be renewed using classes equal or superior to the T1200 class.
    • That Coast Guard continue to operate the icebreaker fleet.
    • That it is critical that the Coast Guard charter an icebreaker temporarily to offset the shortage of units.
    • That new units should replace the T1200s as soon as possible and should be based on the T1200 proven design and perhaps enhanced to a T1300 level.
    • Choose a single shipbuilding site for gains in experience and lower costs.
    • Consider use of long-term chartering with an option to purchase for icebreaker renewal to reduce financing risks.
    • Consider use of foreign shipyard for building new T1200 considering Canadian shipyards’ restrictions of space and expertise, as well as higher costs. Stopping navigation would have much more adverse economic repercussions than the potential spinoffs generated by building these vessels in Canada.

Annex D: Historical Ice Coverage

The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) reports average ice coverage reflecting 30 years of data. Trends show a decline of ice coverage of 8% (Gulf) – 10% (East Newfoundland) per decade since 1979. However, there is still significant variability from year to year and between different areas. The maps found at the CIS website (http://iceweb1.cis.ec.gc.ca/30Atlas/page1.xhtml?region=AR&lang=en) show for each week the distribution of the ice by using the median of ice concentration for each area, over the 30 year period.

East Coast

Graph showing historical Total Accumulated Ice Coverage (TAC)for the weeks 1126-0716, seasons: 1986-87-2016-17

Great Lakes

Graph showing historical Total Accumulated Ice Coverage (TAC)for the weeks 1126-0716, seasons: 1986-87-2016-17

Canadian Arctic

Graph showing historical Total Accumulated Ice Coverage (TAC)for the weeks 0514-1015, seasons: 1987-2017
 

Annex E: Detailed Maritime Traffic during the ice season type of vessel

Graph showing detailed maritime traffic during ice season by type of vessel
 

Annex F: Ice Coverage and Traffic Patterns 2011-2017

Southern Canada

Traffic density and maximum ice coverage for the 2011-2017 Winter Icebreaking Seasons (Dec - May). Higher density traffic is illustrated on an orange to red graduated scale, with red representing high density vessel traffic and orange representing low density

Southern Canada Winter Season 2011

Map showing southern canada traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2011
 

Southern Canada Winter Season 2012

Map showing southern canada traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2012
 

Southern Canada Winter Season 2013

Map showing southern canada traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2013
 

Southern Canada Winter Season 2014

Map showing southern canada traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2014
 

Southern Canada Winter Season 2015

Map showing southern canada traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2015
 

Southern Canada Winter Season 2016

Map showing southern canada traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2016
 

Southern Canada Winter Season 2017

Map showing southern canada traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2017
 

Arctic

Traffic density and average ice coverage for the 2011- 2017 Summer Icebreaking Seasons (June – Nov). Higher density traffic is illustrated on an orange to red graduated scale, with red representing high density vessel traffic and orange representing low density.

Arctic Summer 2011

Map showing arctic traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2011
 

Arctic Summer 2012

Map showing arctic traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2012
 

Arctic Summer 2013

Map showing arctic traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2013
 

Arctic Summer 2014

Map showing arctic traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2014
 

Arctic Summer 2015

Map showing arctic traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2015
 

Arctic Summer 2016

Map showing arctic traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2016
 

Arctic Summer 2017

Map showing arctic traffic density and maximum ice coverage for season of 2017